In Montgomery, Alabama, a grassroots revolt against segregated public transportation inspired a multitude of similar protests and boycotts.A number of school districts in the Southern and border states desegregated peacefully.Elsewhere, white resistance to school desegregation resulted in open defiance and violent confrontations, requiring the use of federal troops in Little Rock, Arkansas, in 1957.

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By 1964, ten years after , the NAACP's focused legal campaign had been transformed into a mass movement to eliminate all traces of institutionalized racism from American life.

This effort, marked by struggle and sacrifice, soon captured the imagination and sympathies of much of the nation.

In many respects, the ideals expressed in On December 1, 1955, Rosa Parks, forty-three, was arrested for disorderly conducted for refusing to give up her bus seat to a white passenger.

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decision was quickly overshadowed by events outside the nation's courtrooms.

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